National Retezat National Park is also called the Blue-Eye Land, is the most important natural reservation in our country, a natural monument recognized internationally as a Biosphere Reserve with a surface area of 20,000 ha, located in the south- West of Hunedoara County.
In Retezat there are the footsteps of the old glaciation, with dozens of glaciers, some of which were over 10 km, countless grottos and marshes often dressed in dwarf pine forests.
The park was set up in 1935 on the initial square surface of 100 km of the former hunting area owned by the Royal House. The black goats were protected from then on to be hunted so that since the beginning of the past century there have been established areas where grazing was forbidden.
The park has a status of a protected area of national and international interest and since 1979 it is known as the Biosphere Reserve. With the establishment of the Retezat National Park, the protection and preservation of natural elements of special value in physical-geographic, fauna, hydrological, geological, paleontological, speleological, pedological and landscaping flora have been pursued.
Since 1999, the park has its own administration, since 2004 it has become a member of the Pan Parks Foundation and since 2007 it has been protected as a site proposal for the Natura 2000 European ecological network for the conservation of natural habitats and of wild plant and wildlife species Community.
In 1974 the dam of Gura Apei (located at the western edge of the Park) was begun. The Big River's flow was not enough to fill the accumulation that was intended to be done by lifting a dam of stones, for which construction a stone volume was used three times larger than the Keops Pyramid. So it was decided to dig an adduction tunnel from Rausor, 23 kilometers long. To both ends of the tunnel, there are now paved roads, roads that have encouraged the appearance of cottages since the '80s.
The Retezat National Park Administration wants to preserve this natural environment and to fight any attempt to mechanize tourism in Retezat. So there is no cable car or chairlift, and the park remains a place for step-wise excursions.
The Retezat National Park prohibits any exploitation such as grazing, hunting, fishing, fruit harvesting, camping tourism. Access is allowed only with authorization from the Nature Monuments Commission. The second area is less rigorous because grazing is allowed 2 months a year.
Flora and fauna are very diverse. One-third of all plant species on the Romanian territory is found in Retezat. The nearly 1,200 species of plants make the area famous among botanists. Their interest in Retezat has been manifested since the second half of the XVIIIth century.
Since then, Retezat has discovered 90 species of plants specific to the Carpathians, and much of them can only be found here. Also, in Retezat there is the highest concentration of Pinus cembra, popularly popular, a conifer of the pine species.
Retezat National Park hosts 55 mammalian species (22 of which are protected by law) and provides good conditions for the survival of Europe's largest carnivores (wolves and races). Black goats and deer are also well protected from the mountain. The limestone part of the massif is still used by bears as a shelter during the winter.
Wild cats are also part of the fauna richness of the area to which marmots have recently been added (20 Alpine marmots from the Austrian Alps were introduced into the Park by an action of the Romanian Academy in the Gemenele Lake area. Now, marmots can be found in all the valleys and the massive glaciers of the massif). The total number of species of animals living in Retezat National Park is of the order of thousands.
With approximately 80 lakes, of which 58 permanent, the Retezat Massif holds almost 40% of the glacial lakes in Romania. The lakes, fed by the melted snow of the ridges, offer dreams of dreams.
One of the most spectacular is the one on the route between Bucura and Zanoaga. The Taul Porţii, Taul Agata, Florica, Viorica, Ana, and Lia are inset on the southern slope of Judea, and the "warming" formed between Judea and Peleaga is dominated by Bucura. The deepest glacial lake is Zanoaga, 29 meters; here is the largest volume of water, almost 700,000 cubic meters.
The layout of the 58 permanent glacial lakes in the caldera, slope, complex or isolated slope and their concentration in a single mountainous mass attracts year not only the admiration of the tourists but also the attention of the scientists.
The lakes and rivers are populated by trout and in the limestone areas, the presence of the viper is felt.
30% of tourists who come to Retezat annually are foreigners. Foreigners say they come to Retezat for two important things: the beauty of landscapes and the "wilderness" of the area. Retezat attracts as a magnet because it is impressive, spectacular and welcoming.
Retezat National Park entered the race launched by the New 7 Wonders Foundation to choose the seven natural wonders of the world. The work is part of the New 7 Wonders Foundation, the same body that managed to establish the 7 wonders of the contemporary world (man-made goals) two years ago after a similar campaign.
Access to Retezat National Park is accessible from two directions: Hateg Depression and Jiu Valley.
Below you can also see a video introduction of what Retezat National Park means.